年10月21日 3G SYSTRA 3G System Training Service Description CTXX Issue en Nokia Networks Oy 错误！使用“开始” 应用于要在此处显示的文字. 3G SYSTRA. Introduction to 3G & UMTS Identify what is meant by the term 3G and briefly outline the work completed by the specification bodies. Furthermore. Directory: 3G/4G develop. Plat: PDF Size: KB Downloads: 4. Upload time: Uploader: joyraj. Description: This book on 3G system.
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The part responsible for taking these messages from one network element to another network element is known as the Message Transfer Part MTP.
Furthermore, the student should gain a basic understanding of the different types of the air interface and list the syztra benefits of UMTS for the operator and the end user. They are used to set up a point to point connection. Where is the Called Party? We will discuss the DX shortly, but let us first examine some other differences. The messenger of the receiving manager looks at the address and gives it to his manager, who will then read and act as necessary.
00_Table of Contents 3G SYSTRA(Jan-06)
This is implemented by a group switch where each input is capable of being switched to any output. In such a case, the mobile stations near the edges of the cell may be handed over to neighbouring cells with less traffic load. To make sure that the NSS knows whom to charge for the call. Different signalling standards were developed in different parts of the world.
The network receives the request and registers the mobile in the new VLR area. Things will be sjstra to grasp if we go back for a moment and follow the famous professor in the hotel.
It takes care of Air interface signalling, Air interface ciphering and speech processing. The HLR is no exception.
Roaming agreements between several operators were established. It is modular in design, although the modules are not as clearly defined as is the case with the OSI 7-layer model, which it pre-dates.
These invocations and results that are sent back and forth between multiple elements using MAP need some sort of secretary to manage the transactions. Short message service is transmitted in: These are referred to as paging groups. Four of the most essential categories are listed below.
The channel combination informs the mobile station about the mapping method used in the particular cell. All these three elements are basically databases that hold various types of information. These functional units have independent tasks, but communicate when and as necessary using a common message bus.
The registration in Madrid is cancelled, registration in Paris 3v made, and the location data in the Home Register is brought up-to-date. Sytra Billing Centre Figure Which of the following are dedicated channels? A message about an incoming call is sent to the restaurant and one of the waiters starts looking for the professor.
Message Transfer Part layers The lowest level, MTP layer 1 physical connectionsdefines the physical and electrical characteristics. The following information is required when creating the subscriber: GSM — Global System for Mobile communications At the beginning of the s, the lack of a common mobile system was seen to be a general, worldwide problem.
There is also only one signalling unit.
At this point, we have to summarise what happened behind the scenes to be able to understand the rest of the process. A3 is used in authentication, A8 is used in generating a ciphering key and A5 is used in systrz. Ciphering is also carried out for security reasons.
3G SYSTRA – Overview to UMTS Network Planning & Radio Resource Management
The reason for this can be explained with an example. If there are no restrictions defined by the operators, then: It is worth remembering thatthe standard emergency number in most fixed networks is also used in GSM networks, even if is not necessarily the standard 3y number in every country.
There is multipath propagation, shadowing and propagation delay. This helps to eliminate fading dips.