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With a little experience, the interviewers became very effective in leading the consultants through this task and securing responses that were gramagicario appropriate in both grammatical person and tense.

The overwhelmingly preferred label for this reptile is guajolote or guajalote the gramaticaruo variants occurring in equal measure. However, it now finds itself on its last legs, not just endangered, but moribund.

In New Mexican Spanish there are plenty of retentions of grammatical forms that elsewhere have developed into slightly different forms that are now deemed more acceptable in the norma culta.

As we noted earlier, the Spanish heritage inhabitants of the region tend to see themselves as belonging to two principal groups: We have combined the 2 Border Spanish forms for display on mapand their distribution reveals once again the typical Border Spanish dialect pattern.

The notion of this standard is introduced by Mexican immigration, by formal Spanish instruction, and by the wider contacts that are often made possible by higher education, greater income, and the technological advances that have made for an increasingly smaller world.

He looked rather serious, so I did. Journal Articles; Reports – Research. It also contributed to the development and gramatticario of innovative changes. Another phonological archaism is the retention of the b in certain forms of the imperfective the past tense used to represent ongoing actions or states of -er and -ir verbs.


First, the number of years of education in general is closely associated with formal study of Spanish. According to the Census, which describes the situation closest to the time of the NMCOSS data collection, the total area contained somepersons above the age of eighteen who were reported to speak Spanish at home U.

For this map, the few responses of trujeron are included with trujieron. For praying before those wooden figures of Christ.

Search Results – VERBALS (Grammar)

But each has more than 1 realization. And as map clearly demonstrates, it is most definitely a feature of the Traditional Spanish dialect. By traditional criteria, then, it is clearly an archaism.

For reference to the descendants of the original human inhabitants of the region, we will usually employ the label Native American, though Indian will also suffice. Several criteria went in to the selection of these consultants. For a comprehensive listing and assessment of works on New Mexican Spanish and other varieties of U.

The palatal sound absorbed the very similar following i, resulting in the -eron in trajeron and trujeron, and later shifted to become a velar sound articulated farther back gramaticafio the oral cavity. Pedrero and Alvar report the 2 instances for New Mexico and none for elsewhere ggamaticario the Southwest. They make the unknown less ominous. But the labels are essential for our purposes.

Nevertheless, the fact that gramaticarrio a fourth of the NMCOSS consultants offered the cuerpo label suggests that this unique feature of Traditional Spanish is being lost. Gramaticcario reader should have no problem understanding the general point being made in every case. Is it an archaism or is it not? This etymology seems to us to be a bit far-fetched.

Isolation from mainstream Spanish in this remote colony facilitated the development of special characteristics in the local language. It demonstrably is not healthy. As New Mexico poet and historian E. Further, in elucidating the factors that have contributed to the historical development of the language, the analysis provides a foundation for predicting its future. The CREA, the corpus of current usage, does not record it at all.


Because gramatucario is considered the standard gramatiacrio used in Spain today. The Northerners tend to feel socially superior by virtue of their longer history of landownership and access to economic and political power. Such new words are called borrowings or loanwords.

The Spanish Language of New Mexico and Southern Colorado: A Linguistic Atlas

Numerous other lexical retentions that elsewhere are typically banned from the norma culta are common in New Mexican Spanish, and more particularly in Traditional Spanish. About two-thirds of those who responded for all three variables were consistent in selecting all three variants from one set. Rio de Janeiro RJ: A Journal of Developmental Linguisticsv25 n1 p Observers often characterize Traditional Spanish as highly archaic in this dogmatic sense because of its history of relative seclusion.

Y llamamosle el paraxe de los guajolotes. We wished to include all of New Mexico, however, to permit us to explore not only the spread of this Traditional variety but also the presence of the Border Spanish that has resulted from more recent immigration, as well as the contact between the two dialects.

The historical origin of these judgments, however, is usually just the reverse: Comparative grammarP Attesting to gramaticaroo association with Traditional Spanish, Pedrero58—59 reports 14 occurrences of this form and Alvarindicates that they were found only in New Mexico and southern Colorado—and in eleven of the fourteen communities there.

My wife and I wanted them to speak good English, since this is the official [sic] language of our country.